Journal Articles & Book Chapters

Journal Articles & Book Chapters | Other Publications | Selected online Papers in English and German

International peer-reviewed scientific journal articles & book chapters

Children with severe TBI easily pass but adults with mild TBI fail: How can that be?
Carone, D. Children with moderate/severe brain damage/dysfunction outperform adults with mild to no brain damage on the Medical Symptom Validity Test. Brain Injury, 2008; 22, 12, 960-971.
WMT failures in mild TBI are not false positives:Green, P. , Flaro, L. & Courtney, J. (2009) Examining false positives on the WMT in adults with mild traumatic brain injury.Brain Injury, August 2009; 23(9): 741-750
TOMM, MSVT, Rey-15-Item Test and Reliable Digit Span in children with good effort versus simulators. Blaskewitz, N., Merten, T. & Kathmann, N. (2008) Performance of children on Symptom Validity Tests: TOMM, MSVT & FIT. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology,Volume 23, Issue 4, July 2008, Pages 379-391
MSVT has very few false positives for poor effort in dementia, as long as the dementia profile is included in the analysis of results. Also, the MSVT can be used as an aid to diagnosis in dementia. Laura L. S. Howe; David W. Loring  Classification Accuracy and Predictive Ability of The Medical Symptom Validity Test’s Dementia Profile and General Memory Impairment Profile The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 1744-4144, Volume 23, Issue 2, First published 2009, Pages 329 – 342Laura L.S. Howea, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Ashton M. Andersona, David A.S. Kaufmana, Bonnie C. Sachsa and David W. Loringb,Characterization of the Medical Symptom Validity Test in evaluation of clinically referred memory disorders clinic patients  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Volume 22, Issue 6, August 2007, Pages 753-761
Effects of effort dwarf the effects of brain injury on neuropsychological tests.Stevens, A., Friedel, E., Mehren, G.,& Merten, T. (2008)* Malingering and uncooperativeness in psychiatric and psychological assessment: Prevalence and effects in a German sample of claimants. Psychiatry Research. 157, 191-200
Response Bias Scale:A new scale for the MMPI-2 measures exaggeration of cognitive complaints: Gervais, R., Ben-Porath, Y.S., Wygant, D.B., & Green, P. (2007) Development and validation of a Response Bias Scale (RBS) for the MMPI-2. Assessment, 14, 2, 196-208.  Contact Dr. Gervais at for reprints.
Extensive data show that it is external incentive and not ability that accounts for WMT failure in non-demented people: Flaro, L., Green, P. & Robertson, E. (2007) Word Memory Test failure 23 times higher in mild brain injury than parents seeking custody: The power of external incentives. Brain Injury, 21, 4, 373-383.

Effort testing by physicians:

Gill, D., Green, P., Flaro, L. & Pucci, T. (2007) The Role of Effort Testing in Independent Medical Examinations. The Medico-Legal Journal, 75, 64-72.

Bowden and Shores data show more Word Memory Test failures in mild than in severe brain injury

This conclusion, drawn directly from their raw data, is contrary to the claims in their published paper in TCN.

Seizures versus pseudoseizures: Important new work by Dr. Daniel Drane, D.J. Williamson et al. at the Seattle Brain Surgery Program. This study involves effort testing with WMT in patients with seizure disorders versus psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (formerly pseudo-seizures).

  • Drane, D., Williamson, D.J., Stroup, E.S., Holmes, M.D., Jung, M., Koerner, E., Chayter, N., Wilensky, A.J. & Miller. J.W. (2006) Impairment is not equal in patients with epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Epilepsia, 47 (11) 1879-1886.

Soft tissue injuries:Effort test failure in an IME (Canada):

  • Richman, J., Green, P. Gervais, R., Flaro, L., Merten, T., Brockhaus, R. Ranks, D. (2006) Objective Tests of Symptom Exaggeration in Independent Medical Examinations. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 48(3):303-311, March 2006.

Effort versus brain injury: This paper contains numerous tables showing how effort on the WMT predicts neuropsychological test scores better than brain injury severity.

  • Green, P. (2007) The pervasive influence of effort on neuropsychological tests. Physical Medicine Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 18 (1), 43-68.

Flaro, L., Green. P., & Blaskewitz, N. (2007) Die Bedeutung der Beschwerdenvalidierung im Kindesalter. (The importance of symptom validity testing in children: WMT & MSVT). Praxis der Rechtspsychologie (Germany), 17, (1), 125-139

Gervais, R., Rohling, M. Green, P. & Ford, W. (2004) A comparison of WMT, CARB and TOMM failure rates in non-head injury disability claimants. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19 (4) 475-487.

Green, P. (in press) Spoiled for choice: Making comparisons between forced-choice effort tests. For K. Boone (Ed) Malingering of Neurocognitive Disorders. Guilford Press

Green, P. (in press) Questioning common assumptions in depression. For J. Morgan & J. Sweet (Eds.). Neuropsychology of Malingering Casebook, New York: Taylor & Francis.

Merten, T., Green, P., Henry, M., Blaskewitz, N., & Brockhaus, R. (2005) Analog validation of German language symptom validity tests and the influence of coaching. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 6, 719-727.

Green, P. & Flaro, L. (2003), Word Memory Test performance in children. Child Neuropsychology, 9, 3, 189-207

Green, P., Rohling, M.L, Iverson, G. & Gervais, R. (2003) Relationships between olfactory discrimination and head injury severity. Brain Injury, 17 (6) 479-496

Rohling, M.L., Green, P., Allen, L. & Iverson, G.L. (2002) Depressive symptoms and neurocognitive test scores in patients passing symptom validity tests. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17 (3), 205-222

Authors of the latter paper were presented with the Nelson Butters Award at the National Academy of Neuropsychology annual conference in Dallas, USA, October, 2003. It was based on Dr. Green’s testing of 680 consecutive outpatients and the finding that, after removing cases showing “response bias”, depression had no effect on any of 43 neuropsychological test scores.

Iverson, G., Green, P. & Gervais, R. Using the Word Memory Test to detect biased responding in head injury litigation. The Journal of Cognitive Rehabilitation, 17 (2), 4-8, 1999

Green, P. and Iverson, G. (2001) Validation of the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias in litigating patients with head injuries. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 15 (4), 492-497.

Green, P, Rohling, ML, Lees-Haley, PR & Allen LM. (2001) Effort has a greater effect on test scores than severe brain injury in compensation claimants. Brain Injury, 15 (12) 1045-1060

Green, P. & Iverson, G.L. (2001) Effects of injury severity and cognitive exaggeration on olfactory deficits in head injury compensation claims. Neurorehabilitation, 16, 237-243

Green, P. (2001), Why clinicians often disagree about the validity of test results, Neurorehabilitation, 16, 231-236

Green, P. (2001) Comment on article “Does pain confound interpretation of neuropsychological test results?” Neurorehabilitation, 16, 305-306

Green, P., Iverson, G. & Allen, L. Detecting malingering in head injury litigation with the Word Memory Test. Brain Injury, 1999, 13 (10) 813-819

Green, P., Gervais, R., & Merten, T. (2005) Das Memory Complaints Inventory (MCI): Gedächtnistörungen, Beschwerdenschilderung und Leistungsmotivation [The Memory Complaints Inventory (MCI): Memory impairment, symptom presentation, and test effort.] Neurologie & Rehabilitation, 11, 3, 139-144
Green, P. (2004) Testmotivation und ihre Messung. Reportpsychologie, 29, 5, 303-308

Brockhaus, R. & Merten, T. (2004), “Neuropsychologische Diagnostik suboptimalen Leistungsverhaltens mit dem Word Memory Test”, Nervenarzt, 75, (9), 882-887.
Green, P., Lees-Haley, P.R. & Allen, L.M. (2003) The Word Memory Test and the validity of neuropsychological test scores. In J. Hom & R.L. Denney (Eds) Detection of Response Bias in Forensic Neuropsychology New York, Haworth Medical Press

Green, P. & Josey, F. (2002) The use of an earplug to increase speech comprehension in a subgroup of children with learning disabilities: an experimental treatment. Applied Neuropsychology, 9 (1) 13-22

Green, P., Lees-Haley, P.R. & Allen, L.M. (2002) The Word Memory Test and the validity of neuropsychological test scores. Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology, 2, 3 / 4, 97-124

Rohling, M.L., Allen, L.M. & Green, P. (2002) Who is exaggerating cognitive impairment and who is not? CNS Spectrums, 7 (5), 387-395
Iverson, GL, Lange, RT, Green, P & Franzen, MD. (2002) Detecting exaggeration and malingering with the Trail Making Test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 16 (3) 398-406

Ferrari, R., Obelieniene, D., Russell, A.S., Darlington, P., Gervais, R.O. & Green, P. (2002) Laypersons expectations of the sequelae of whiplash injury. A cross-cultural comparative study between Canada and Lithuania. Medical Science Monitor, 8 (11), 728-734
Iverson, G., Turner, R.A. and Green, P. Predictive validity of WAIS-R VIQ-PIQ splits in persons with major depression. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1999, 55 (4), 519-524

Williamson, D, Rohling, M, Green, P & Allen, L. (2003) Evaluating effort with the Word Memory Test and Category Test Or not: Inconsistencies in a forensic sample. Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology, 3, 3, 19-44
Iverson, G.L. & Green, P. (2001) Measuring improvement or decline on the WAIS-R in inpatient psychiatry. Psychological Reports, 89, 457-462

Ferrari, R., Obelieniene, D., Russell, A.S., Darlington, P., Gervais, R.O. & Green, P. (2001) Symptom expectation after minor head injury. A comparative study between Canada and Lithuania. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 103, 184-190

Gervais, R.O., Russell, A.S., Green, P., Ferrari, R. and Pieschl, S D. (2001) Effort testing in patients with fibromyalgia and disability incentives. Journal of Rheumatology, 28, 1892-1899.

Slick, D.J., Iverson, G.L. & Green, P. California Verbal Learning Test indicators of suboptimal performance in a sample of head-injury litigants. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. Vol. 22 (5) 569-579, 2000.

Gervais, R., Green, P., Allen, L.M. & Iverson, G. Effects of coaching on symptom validity testing in chronic pain patients presenting for disability assessments. Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology, 2001, 2 (2), 1-19.