Journal Articles & Book Chapters

Journal Articles & Book Chapters | Other Publications | Selected online Papers in English and German

International peer-reviewed scientific journal articles & book chapters

Results of more than 20 years of PVT testing with children Click Here for the article

Green, P. , Flaro, L. (2019) Performance validity test failure predicts suppression of neuropsychological test results in developmentally disabled children.  Applied Neuropsychology: Child, May 2019; Pages 1-17.
See the results of more than 20 years of PVT testing with children

Children with severe TBI easily pass but adults with mild TBI fail: How can that be?
Carone, D. Children with moderate/severe brain damage/dysfunction outperform adults with mild to no brain damage on the Medical Symptom Validity Test. Brain Injury, 2008; 22, 12, 960-971.

WMT failures in mild TBI are not false positives:Green, P. , Flaro, L. & Courtney, J. (2009) Examining false positives on the WMT in adults with mild traumatic brain injury.Brain Injury, August 2009; 23(9): 741-750
TOMM, MSVT, Rey-15-Item Test and Reliable Digit Span in children with good effort versus simulators. Blaskewitz, N., Merten, T. & Kathmann, N. (2008) Performance of children on Symptom Validity Tests: TOMM, MSVT & FIT. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology,Volume 23, Issue 4, July 2008, Pages 379-391
MSVT has very few false positives for poor effort in dementia, as long as the dementia profile is included in the analysis of results. Also, the MSVT can be used as an aid to diagnosis in dementia. Laura L. S. Howe; David W. Loring  Classification Accuracy and Predictive Ability of The Medical Symptom Validity Test’s Dementia Profile and General Memory Impairment Profile The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 1744-4144, Volume 23, Issue 2, First published 2009, Pages 329 – 342Laura L.S. Howea,, Ashton M. Andersona, David A.S. Kaufmana, Bonnie C. Sachsa and David W. Loringb,Characterization of the Medical Symptom Validity Test in evaluation of clinically referred memory disorders clinic patients  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Volume 22, Issue 6, August 2007, Pages 753-761
Effects of effort dwarf the effects of brain injury on neuropsychological tests.Stevens, A., Friedel, E., Mehren, G.,& Merten, T. (2008)* Malingering and uncooperativeness in psychiatric and psychological assessment: Prevalence and effects in a German sample of claimants. Psychiatry Research. 157, 191-200
Response Bias Scale:A new scale for the MMPI-2 measures exaggeration of cognitive complaints: Gervais, R., Ben-Porath, Y.S., Wygant, D.B., & Green, P. (2007) Development and validation of a Response Bias Scale (RBS) for the MMPI-2. Assessment, 14, 2, 196-208.  Contact Dr. Gervais at rgervais@shaw.ca for reprints.
Extensive data show that it is external incentive and not ability that accounts for WMT failure in non-demented people: Flaro, L., Green, P. & Robertson, E. (2007) Word Memory Test failure 23 times higher in mild brain injury than parents seeking custody: The power of external incentives. Brain Injury, 21, 4, 373-383.

Effort testing by physicians:

Gill, D., Green, P., Flaro, L. & Pucci, T. (2007) The Role of Effort Testing in Independent Medical Examinations. The Medico-Legal Journal, 75, 64-72.

Bowden and Shores data show more Word Memory Test failures in mild than in severe brain injury

This conclusion, drawn directly from their raw data, is contrary to the claims in their published paper in TCN.

Seizures versus pseudoseizures: Important new work by Dr. Daniel Drane, D.J. Williamson et al. at the Seattle Brain Surgery Program. This study involves effort testing with WMT in patients with seizure disorders versus psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (formerly pseudo-seizures).

  • Drane, D., Williamson, D.J., Stroup, E.S., Holmes, M.D., Jung, M., Koerner, E., Chayter, N., Wilensky, A.J. & Miller. J.W. (2006) Impairment is not equal in patients with epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Epilepsia, 47 (11) 1879-1886.

Soft tissue injuries:Effort test failure in an IME (Canada):

  • Richman, J., Green, P. Gervais, R., Flaro, L., Merten, T., Brockhaus, R. Ranks, D. (2006) Objective Tests of Symptom Exaggeration in Independent Medical Examinations. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 48(3):303-311, March 2006.

Effort versus brain injury: This paper contains numerous tables showing how effort on the WMT predicts neuropsychological test scores better than brain injury severity.

  • Green, P. (2007) The pervasive influence of effort on neuropsychological tests. Physical Medicine Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 18 (1), 43-68.

Part 1: Papers with Paul Green as author or co-author

RESEARCH PAPERS 2016

Green, P. & Flaro, L. (2016). Results From Three Performance Validity Tests in Children With Intellectual Disability. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 5(1):25-34

RESEARCH PAPERS 2015

Green, P. & Flaro, L. (2015). Results From Three Performance Validity Tests (PVTs)

in Adults With Intellectual Deficits. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, 22(4):293-303

Armistead-Jehle, P. , Green, P. , Gervais, R & Hungerford, L (2015). An Examination of the Word Memory Test as a Measure of Memory. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, 22(6):415-426

Armistead-Jehle, P. & Denny, R. (2015). The Detection of Feigned Impairment Using the WMT, MSVT, and NV-MSVT. Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, 22(2):147-155

RESEARCH PAPERS 2013

Carone, D.A., Green, P. & Drane, D.L. (2013)  Word Memory Test Profiles in Two Cases with Surgical

Removal of the Left Anterior Hippocampus and Parahippocampal Gyrus.  Applied Neuropsychology: Adult, 21 (2) 155-160

RESEARCH PAPERS 2012

Armistead-Jehle, P., Gervais, R.O. & Green, P. (2012)  Memory Complaints Inventory results as a function of symptom validity test performance.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27, (1) 101-113

Armistead-Jehle, P., Gervais, R.O. & Green, P. (2012b)  Memory Complaints Inventory and Symptom Validity Test performance in a clinical sample.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27, (7) 725-734

Harrison, A.G., Green, P. & Flaro, L. (2012) The importance of symptom validity testing in adolescents and young adults undergoing assessments for learning or attention difficulties.  Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 27 (1) 98-113

RESEARCH PAPERS 2011

Green, P. (2011)  Comparison between the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Non-Verbal Medical Symptom Validity Test (NV-MSVT) in adults with disability claims.  Applied Neuropsychology, 18, 18-26

Green, P., Montijo, J. & Brockhaus, R. (2011) High specificity of the Word Memory Test and Medical Symptom Validity Test in groups with severe verbal memory impairment.  Applied Neuropsychology, 18 (2) 86-94

RESEARCH PAPERS 2009

Green, P. (2009) Questioning common assumptions about depression.  In J.E. Morgan & J.J. Sweet (Eds).  Neuropsychology of Malingering Casebook.  London, Psychology Press.

Flaro, L., Green, P. & Blaskewitz, N.  (2009)  Die Bedeutung der Beschwerdenvalidierung im Kindesalter.  In T. Merten & H. Dettenborn (Eds).  Diagnostik der Beschwerdenvaliditat. Berlin, Deutscher Psychologen Verlag GmbH

Singhal, A., Green, P., Ashaye, K.,Shankar, K. & Gill, D.  (2009)  High specificity of the Medical Symptom Validity Test in patients with very severe memory impairment.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 24 (8), 721-728

Green, P.  Flaro, L. & Courtney, J.  (2009) Examining false positives on the Word Memory Test in mild traumatic brain injury.  Brain Injury, 23 (9) 741-750

RESEARCH PAPERS 2008

Green, P. (2008) Questioning common assumptions about depression. Chapter 12 in J. Morgan & J. Sweet (Eds.). Neuropsychology of Malingering Casebook, New York: Taylor & Francis.

RESEARCH PAPERS 2007

Green, P. (2007)  Manual for the Green’s Non-Verbal Medical Symptom Validity Test for Windows.  Green’s Publishing, Edmonton, Canada

Green, P. (2007) Spoiled for choice.  In K. Boone (Ed.) Assessment of Feigned Cognitive Impairment: A Neuropsychological Perspective.  New York, Guilford Publications.

Green, P.  (2007)  The Pervasive Influence of Effort on Neuropsychological Tests.  Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 18 (1), 43-68.

Flaro, L., Green, P., & Robertson, E.  (2007)  Word Memory Test failure 23 times higher in mild brain injury than in parents seeking custody:  The power of external incentives.  Brain Injury, 21 (4), 373-383

Gervais, R., Ben-Porath, Y., Wygant, D. & Green, P.  (2007)  Development and Validation of a Response Bias Scale (RBS) for the MMPI-2.  Assessment, 14 (2), 196-208.

Gill, D., Green, P., Flaro, L. & Pucci, T.  (2007)  The Role of Effort Testing in Independent Medical Examinations.  Medico-Legal Journal, 75 (2) 64-71

Flaro, L., Green. P., & Blaskewitz, N. (2007) Die Bedeutung der Beschwerdenvalidierung im Kindesalter. (The importance of symptom validity testing in children: WMT & MSVT). Praxis der Rechtspsychologie (Germany), 17, (1), 125-139

Green, P. (2007). Spoiled for choice: Making comparisons between forced-choice effort tests. In K. B. Boone (Ed.), Assessment of feigned cognitive impairment: A neuropsychological perspective (p. 50–77). The Guilford Press.

RESEARCH PAPERS 2006

Richman, J., Green, P., Gervais, R., Flaro, L., Merten, T., Brockhaus, R. & Ranks, D. (2006).  Objective tests of symptom exaggeration in independent medical evaluations.  Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 48 (3), 303-311

RESEARCH PAPERS 2005

Green, P. (2003, updated 2005) Manual for the Word Memory Test for Windows.  Green’s Publishing, Edmonton, Canada.

Green, P., (2005) The pervasive influence of effort on neuropsychological test scores. International Journal of Forensic Psychology.

Merten, T., Green, P., Henry, M., Blaskewitz, N. & Brockhaus, R. (2005).  Analog validation of German language symptom validity tests and the influence of coaching.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 6, 719-726.

Green, P., Gervais, R. & Merten, T.  Das Memory Complaints Inventory (MCI): Gedächtnisstörungen Beschwerdenschilderung und Leistungsmotivation [The Memory Complaints Inventory (MCI): Memory impairment, symptom presentation, and test effort]. Neurologie & Rehabilitation, 2005, 11, 139-144.

RESEARCH PAPERS 2004

Green, P. (2004)  Manual for the Medical Symptom Validity Test for Windows.  Green’s Publishing, Edmonton, Canada

Green, P. (2004)  Testmotivation und ihre Messung.  Reportpsychologie, 29, 5, 303-308

Gervais, R., Rohling, M. Green, P. & Ford, W.  (2004)  A comparison of WMT, CARB and TOMM failure rates in non-head injury disability claimants.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19 (4) 475-487.

RESEARCH PAPERS 2003

Green, P. (2003)  Welcoming a paradigm shift in neuropsychology.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18 (6) 625-627

Lees-Haley, P.R., Green, P., Rohling, M.L., Fox, D.D. & Allen, L.A. (2003)  The lesion(s) in traumatic brain injury:  implications for clinical neuropsychology.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18 (6) 585-594

Green, P., Rohling, M.L, Iverson, G. & Gervais, R. (2003)  Relationships between olfactory discrimination and head injury severity.  Brain Injury, 17 (6) 479-496

Green, P. & Flaro, L. (2003)  Word Memory Test performance in children.  Child Neuropsychology, 9 (3) 189-207

Green, P. (2003)  “The patient seemed to be making an effort … but the results were not valid”.  Invited article, The Canadian Neuropsychologist, The Canadian Psychological Association Section 23 – Clinical Neuropsychology, Newsletter, May 2003, 6-12

Green, P., Lees-Haley, P.R. & Allen, L.M. (2003) The Word Memory Test and the validity of neuropsychological test scores.  In J. Hom & R.L. Denney (Eds) Detection of Response Bias in Forensic Neuropsychology New York, Haworth Medical Press

Williamson, D., Green, P., Allen, L. & Rohling, M. (2003) Evaluating effort with the Word Memory Test and Category Test – Or not: Inconsistencies in a compensation-seeking sample. Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology, 3 (3), 19-44

Ferrari, R., Obelieniene, D., Russell, A.S., Darlington, P., Gervais, R.O. & Green, P. (2003) Laypersons’ expectation of the sequelae of whiplash injury.  A cross-cultural comparative study between Canada and Lithuania.  Journal of Rheumatology, 30, 1880

Allen, L.M., Iverson, G.L. & Green, P. (2003) Computerized Assessment of Response Bias in forensic neuropsychology. In J. Hom & R.L. Denney (Eds) Detection of Response Bias in Forensic Neuropsychology New York, Haworth Medical Press

RESEARCH PAPERS 2002

Green, P., Lees-Haley, P.R. & Allen, L.M. (2002) The Word Memory Test and the validity of neuropsychological test scores.  Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology, 2, 3 / 4, 97-124

Allen, L.M., Iverson, G.L. & Green, P. (2002) Computerized Assessment of Response Bias in forensic neuropsychology.  Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology, 3, 1 / 2, 205-225

Rohling, M.L., Green, P., Allen, L.M. & Iverson, G.L. (2002) Depressive symptoms and neurocognitive test scores in patients passing symptom validity tests.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17 (3), 205-222

Authors of the latter paper were presented with the Nelson Butters Award at the National Academy of Neuropsychology annual conference in Dallas, USA, October, 2003. It was based on Dr. Green’s testing of 680 consecutive outpatients and the finding that, after removing cases showing “response bias”, depression had no effect on any of 43 neuropsychological test scores.

Green, P. & Josey, F.  (2002) The use of an earplug to increase speech comprehension in a subgroup of children with learning disabilities:  an experimental treatment.  Applied Neuropsychology, 9 (1) 13-22

Rohling, M.L., Allen, L.M. & Green, P. (2002) Who is exaggerating cognitive impairment and who is not?  CNS Spectrums, 7 (5), 387-395

Iverson, GL, Lange, RT, Green, P & Franzen, MD. (2002) Detecting exaggeration and malingering with the Trail Making Test.  The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 16 (3) 398-406

Ferrari, R., Obelieniene, D., Russell, A.S., Darlington, P., Gervais, R.O. & Green, P. (2002) Laypersons’ expectations of the sequelae of whiplash injury.  A cross-cultural comparative study between Canada and Lithuania.  Medical Science Monitor, 8 (11), 728-734

Allen, L., Rohling, M., Dunn, T. & Green, P. (2002) Effect size comparisons between analogue simulators and patients failing CARB or the WMT effort measures.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17 (8), 856

Allen, L., Rohling, M. & Green, P. (2002) Failure rates on the CARB in 32 North American assessment practices.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17 (8), 857

Allen, L., Rohling, M. & Green, P. (2002) Beyond symptom validity:  accounting for domain-specific variance amid the ruins of your post 9-11 test data.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17 (8) 857

Allen, L.M. & Green, P.  (2002) Equivalence of the computerized and orally administered Word Memory Test effort measures.  WebPsychEmpiricisthttp://www.wpe.info/papers_table.html

RESEARCH PAPERS 2001

Green, P. & Iverson, G.L.  (2001)  Effects of injury severity and cognitive exaggeration on olfactory deficits in head injury compensation claims.  Invited article for Neurorehabilitation, 16, 237-243

Green, P.  (2001) Comment on article “Does pain confound interpretation of neuropsychological test results?” Invited article for Neurorehabilitation, 16, 305-306

Green, P. (2001)  Why clinicians often disagree about the validity of test results.  Invited article for Neurorehabilitation, 16, 231-236

Gervais, R.O., Russell, A.S., Green, P., Allen, L.M., Ferrari, R. and Pieschl, S D. (2001)  Effort testing in patients with fibromyalgia and disability incentives.  Journal of Rheumatology, 28, 1892-1899.

Green, P, Rohling, ML, Lees-Haley, PR & Allen LM. (2001)  Effort has a greater effect on test scores than severe brain injury in compensation claimantsBrain Injury, 15 (12) 1045-1060

Green, P., Gervais, R. & Allen, L.M.  Word Memory Test in normal controls and clinical cases simulating impairment. .  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2001, 16 (8), 849-850.

Green, P., Rohling, M.L. Lees Haley, P. & Allen, L.M.  Exaggeration affects test scores far more than severe brain injury.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2001, 16 (8), 751.

Allen, L.M., Rohling, M.L. & Green, P.  Hierarchical multiple regression analysis of symptom validity failure using six cognitive domains.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2001, 16 (8), 846-847.

Gervais, R., Green, P. & Ford, W.  Age effects on WMT performance in disability-related assessments. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2001, 16 (8), 809.

Lange, R.T., Iverson, G.L., Green, P., & Franzen, M.D.  Clinical base rates on the Trail Making Test in a TBI sample:  examination of the malingering hypothesis.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2001, 16 (8), 852.

Green, P. and Iverson, G.  (2001) Validation of the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias in litigating patients with head injuries.  The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 15 (4), 492-497.

Green, P. (2001). “The patient seemed to be making a valid effort”  Yes, but were the results valid?  Psychologists’ Association of Alberta Psymposium, 11 (2), 23-27

Iverson, G.L. & Green, P. (2001)  Measuring improvement or decline on the WAIS-R in inpatient psychiatry.  Psychological Reports, 89, 457-462

Ferrari, R., Obelieniene, D., Russell, A.S., Darlington, P., Gervais, R.O. & Green, P. (2001)  Symptom expectation after minor head injury.  A comparative study between Canada and Lithuania.  Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 103, 184-190

Gervais, R., Green, P., Allen, L.M. & Iverson, G.  Effects of coaching on symptom validity testing in chronic pain patients presenting for disability assessments.  Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology, 2001, 2 (2), 1-19.

RESEARCH PAPERS 2000

Slick, D.J., Iverson, G.L. & Green, P.  California Verbal Learning Test indicators of suboptimal performance in a sample of head-injury litigants.  Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology.  22 (5) 569-579, 2000.

Slick, D.J., Iverson, G.L. & Green, P.  California Verbal Learning Test indicators of suboptimal performance in a sample of litigating patients.  Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, February 2000, Vol. 6, No. 2.

Iverson, G., Woodward, T.S., & Green, P.  Base rates of WAIS-R VIQ-PIQ differences in 1,593 psychiatric inpatients.  Submitted to the Journal of Clinical Psychology., 2000

Green, P. & Allen III, L.M.  Patterns of memory complaints in 577 consecutive patients passing or failing symptom validity tests.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2000, 15 (8), 844-845

Green, P., Berendt, J., Mandel, A. & Allen III, L.M.  Relative sensitivity of the Word Memory Test and Test of Memory Malingering in 144 disability claimants.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2000, 15 (8), 841

Allen III, L.M. & Green, P.  The utility of response consistency on the Word Memory Test as a method of identifying suboptimal effort.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2000, 15 (8), 839

Rohling, M.L., Green, P. & Allen III, L.M.  Comparisons between a logistic regression formula for the CVLT and the Word Memory Test as indicators of suboptimal performance in a sample of litigants. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2000, 15 (8), 839-840

Flaro, L., Green, P. & Allen III, L.M.  Symptom validity test results with children:  CARB and WMT. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology,  2000, 15 (8), 840

Gervais, R., Green, P., Russell, A.S., Pieschl, S. & Allen III, L.M.  Failure on symptom validity tests associated with disability incentives in fibromyalgia patients.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2000, 15 (8), 841-842

Rohling, M.L., Green, P., Allen III, L.M. & Lees-Haley, P.R.  Effect sizes of impairment associated with symptom exaggeration versus severe TBI:  an analysis of a sample of 657 patients and counting.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2000, 15 (8), 843

Williamson, D., Green, P., Allen III, L.M. & Rohling, M.  Who’s exaggerating?  The Category Test and Word Memory Test give different answers.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2000, 15 (8), 845

RESEARCH PAPERS 1999

Iverson, G., Green, P. & Gervais, R.  Using the Word Memory Test to detect biased responding in head injury litigation.  The Journal of Cognitive Rehabilitation, 17 (2), 4-8, 1999

Green, P., Iverson, G. & Allen, L.  Detecting malingering in head injury litigation with the Word Memory Test.  Brain Injury, 1999, 13 (10) 813-819

Iverson, G., Turner, R.A. and Green, P.  Predictive validity of WAIS-R VIQ-PIQ splits in persons with major depression.  Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1999, 55 (4), 519-524

Flaro, L., Green, P., Allen, L. & Gervais, R.  Normative data on the Emotional Perception test with 794 Children.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1999, 14 (8), 718

Green, P., Allen, L.M.  The differential effects of depressive symptoms on self-report and performance–based neurocognitive measures in patients demonstrating good effort during assessment.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1999, 14 (8), 741-742

Allen, L.M. III, Green, P., Eimer, B.N.  The effect of pain on neurocognitive measures in patients demonstrating good effort, Part I:  Data on objective and self-reported assessment of memory ability.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1999, 14 (8), 742-743

Allen, L.M. III, Green, P. & Eimer, B.N.  The effect of pain on neurocognitive measures in patients demonstrating good effort, Part II:  Data on measures of psychopathology and commonly used neuropsychological tests.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1999, 14 (8), 743

Green, P., Allen, L.M. III, & Iverson, G.L.  Utility of the Memory Complaints Inventory for identifying symptom exaggeration in mild to moderate traumatic brain injury.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1999, 14 (8), 743

Gervais, R., Green, P. & Allen, L.  Differential sensitivity to symptom exaggeration of verbal, visual and numerical symptom validity tests.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1999, 14 (8), 746-747

Gervais, R., Allen, L., Green, P. & Cunningham, S.  The effects of coaching DSM-IV pain disorder patients on the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1999, 14 (1), 97/98

Allen, L. & Green, P.  CARB and WMT Effort tests scores in 57 Patients with severe traumatic brain Injury.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1999, 14 (8), 789

Allen, L.M., Green, P., Conder, R.L., Iverson, G.  The diagnostic inefficiency of the MMPI-2 relative to two performance-based measures of response bias in patients with actual or claimed head injury. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1999, 14 (1), 95.

RESEARCH PAPERS  1998

Green, P. and Iverson, G.  Exaggeration of anosmia in 80 litigating head Injury cases.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology (1998) 13 (1), 138

Iverson, G. and Green, P.  Validation of the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias in litigating patients with head injuries.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology (1998) 13 (1), 142

Green, P. & Iverson, G.  Cross-validation of a new measure of response bias (WMT) in 167 litigating head injury cases.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, (1998) 13 (1), 138

Allen, L., Richards, P., Green, P., Iverson, G & Conder, R.  Performance patterns on the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias in 1752 compensation cases.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, (1998), 13 (1), 15

Allen, L., Green, P., Richards, P. & Iverson, G.  Actuarial risk factors related to failing the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias in 307 compensation evaluations.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, (1998) 13 (1), 15

Green, P., & Iverson, G.  Evaluation of the Word Memory Test and Warrington’s Recognition Memory Tests in Litigating Patients with Head Injuries.  Presented at a seminar organized by Dr. Horton at the 1998 American Psychological Association Annual Convention.  San Francisco, USA, August 1998.

RESEARCH PAPERS  1996

Green, P., Allen, & Astner (1996) Word Memory Test (WMT).  (Chapter in Lezak, M., Howieson, D., & Loring, D.  Neuropsychological Assessment, 4th Edition).

Green, P., Allen, L., & Astner, K. (1996).  Manual for the computerized Word Memory Test.  Cognisyst, N.C.

RESEARCH PAPERS  1995

Green, P., & Astner, K. (1995).  Manual for the Oral Word Memory Test.  Cognisyst, N.C.

Part 2: Independent Papers on WMT, MSVT, and NV-MSVT

Allen, M. D., Bigler, E. D., Larsen, J., Goodrich-Hunsaker, N. J., & Hopkins, R. O. (2007). Functional neuroimaging evidence for high cognitive effort on the Word Memory Test in the absence of external incentives. Brain Injury, 21(13-14), 1425-1428.

Allen, M. D., Wu, T. C., & Bigler, E. D. (2011). Traumatic brain injury alters Word Memory Test

performance by slowing response time and increasing cortical activation: An fMRI study of a symptom validity test. Psychological Injury and Law, 4(2), 140-146.

Armistead-Jehle, P. (2010). Symptom validity test performance in U.S. veterans referred for evaluation

of mild TBI. Applied Neuropsychology, 17, 52-59.

Armistead-Jehle, P., & Buican, B. (2013). Comparison of select advanced clinical solutions embedded

effort measures to the Word Memory Test in the detection of suboptimal effort. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 28(3), 297-301.

Armistead-Jehle, P., & Gervais, R. O. (2011). Sensitivity of the Test of Memory Malingering and the

Nonverbal Medical Symptom Validity Test: A replication study.  Applied Neuropsychology, 18, 284-290.

Armistead-Jehle, P. & Hansen, C.L. (2011). Comparison of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status Effort Index and Stand-Alone Symptom Validity Tests in a Military Sample.  Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 26, 592-601.

Axelrod, B. N., & Schutte, C. (2011). Concurrent validity of three forced-choice measures of symptom

validity. Applied Neuropsychology, 18, 27-33.

Batt, K., Shores, E. A., & Chekaluk, E. (2008). The effect of distraction on the Word Memory Test and the

Test of Memory Malingering performance in patients with a severe brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14(6), 1074-1080.

Bauer, L., O’Bryant, S. E., Lynch, J. K., McCaffrey, R. J., & Fisher, J. M. (2007). Examining the Test of

Memory Malingering trial 1 and Word Memory Test immediate recognition as screening tools for insufficient effort. Assessment, 14(3), 215-222.

Bowden, S. C., Shores, E. A., & Mathias, J. L. (2006). Does effort suppress cognition after traumatic brain

injury? A re-examination of evidence for the Word Memory Test. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 20(4), 858-872.

Brockhaus, R., & Merten, T. (2004). Neuropsychologische diagnostic suboptimalen leistungsverhaltens

mit dem Word Memory Test. Nervenarzt, 75, (9), 882-887.

Carone, D. A. (2008). Children with moderate/severe brain damage/dysfunction outperform adults with

mild-to-no brain damage on the Medical Symptom Validity Test. Brain Injury, 22(12), 960-971.

Carone, D. A. (2009). Test review of the Medical Symptom Validity Test. Applied Neuropsychology, 16,

309-311.

Chafetz, M. (2008). Malingering on the social security disability consultative exam: Predictors and base rates. Clinical Neuropsychologist, 22(3), 529-546.

Chafetz, M. (2011). Reducing the probability of false positives in malingering detection of social security disability claimants. Clinical Neuropsychologists, 25(7), 1239-1252.

Donders, J., & Boonstra, T. (2007). Correlates of invalid neuropsychological test performance after

traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 21(3), 319-326.

Fox, David. (2011). Symptom validity test failure indicated invalidity of neuropsychological tests. Clinical

Neuropsychologist, 25(3), 488-495.

Gorny, I., & Merten, T. (2005). Symptom information—warning—coaching: How do they affect

successful feigning in neuropsychological assessment?. Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology, 4(4), 71-97.

Goodrich-Hunsaker, N. J., & Hopkins, R. O. (2009). Word Memory Test performance in amnesic patients

with hippocampal damage. Neuropsychology, 23(4), 529-534.

Gunn, D., Batchelor, J., & Jones, M. (2009). Detection of simulated memory impairment in 6- to 11-year-

old children. Child Neuropsychology, 16,105-118.

Hartman, D. E. (2002). The unexamined lie is a lie worth fibbing: Neuropsychological malingering and the

Word Memory Test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17(7), 709-714.

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